JavaScript's annoying past

Von Torsten Knauf

16. February 2021

This is a small trilogy about JavaScript. The first article below gives context to the annoying past of JavaScript (part 1).

Part 2 "Why JavaScript is definitely a cool thing" will show that JavaScript has come a long way since then.

And in part 3 "My personal language challenge C vs Java vs Python vs JavaScript" I will share my experiences with developing some mathematical problems in C, Java, Python and JavaScript.

After all JavaScript is my programming language of choice today.


Part 1: Annoying past of JavaScript

TL;DR: In the beginning JavaScript development was driven proprietary and on purpose not compatible with competitors. Today, standards have arose and JavaScript is a cool thing.

Starting with the year 1995, the internet was commercialized. Graphical user interfaces (aka browsers) made information and services from servers accessible also for non technicians. A lot of money could be made through installation, support, third party licensing and custom feature implementation for those servers and browsers. With increasing popularity and user accesses advertisement in the browser became a source of revenue as well.1, 2

At first browsers offered static content only. As that lacked in usability and customization for users, a need for a programming language within browsers arose. In the mid 1995 Brendan Eich was hired by Netscape with the promise, he could implement a Scheme based language for Netscape's browser. But shortly before that Netscape also cooperated with Sun Microsystems to integrate Java into its browser. To convince his superior to bet on a scripting language, Eich created MOCHA within 10 days. As a marketing trick MOCHA was renamed to JavaScript for associating it with at that time trendy Java. Eich described the goal of JavaScript as follows:

"We aimed to provide a “glue language” for the Web designers and part time programmers who were building Web content from components such as images, plugins, and Java applets. We saw Java as the “component language” used by higher-priced programmers, where the glue programmers — the Web page designers — would assemble components and automate their interactions using JS."3

So in its birth JavaScript was a quick and dirty propriety invention by Netscape.

Although JavaScript was created quick and dirty, it was a huge success and competitive advantage for Netscape. To keep up, Microsoft reversed engineered JavaScript in JScript for its Internet Explorer. Other competitive proprietary solution to make the browser more dynamic arose like VBScript, Silverlight, Flash, ...

Browser wars

Probably everyone has heard about this competition in some way as browser war. Basically JavaScript was an important weapon in this war. I like to describe the war with the following kind of repeating circle:

At the top we have a player who thinks he is winning. He develops non standard language features on purpose, as he thinks that this adds cool features and increases the vendor lock-in, which hardens its market position. But then he realises clockwise, that users become frustrated due to many different user experiences. In addition developing becomes more and more frustrating and expensive due to the many different non compatible features. Therefore all competitors agree to work together on some standards, provisioned by the W3C and the ECMA organization. Yet making a standard is a slow process. Implementing some of the standards before finalization and adding cool features on top, promises a competitive advantage. Sounds smart but leads back to the top of the circle. Luckily on each circle also some cool finalized and agreed on standardized features manage the jump out of the circle.

To put it in a nutshell, JavaScript needed some circles to evolve from its early quick and dirty proprietary origin, to a mature, multi paradigm and open standard programming language, which it has become today. From a developer point of view, the different phases keeping backwards compatibility in mind, were a lot to keep up with. How it feels to learn JavaScript in 2016 is a lovely article caricaturing the frustration of it.


A quick word about Node.js: In 2009 Ryan Dahl created Node.js at Joyent. He chose to utilise JavaScript, as it lacked in its I/O model. From his point of view he chose the worst language for developing his goal, to ensure that he doesn't create yet another approach. After some iterations Node.js has become stable, widely adopted and open sourced governed since 2015 by the the Node.js Technical Steering Committee.4

A quick word about WebAssembly (WASM+WASI): In 2019 W3C officially launched WebAssembly as the fourth native Web technology beside HTML, CSS and JavaScript. At its core WebAssembly is a virtual instruction set architecture. Beside enabling high performance it allows to cross-compile code from other languages into the JavaScript stack. That makes it possible to utilize a lot of existing technologies and libraries in the JavaScript context.5 Docker co-founder Solomon Hykes even twittered about it:

"If WASM+WASI existed in 2008, we wouldn't have needed to created Docker. That's how important it is." 6

Always bet on JS

As a final remark I want to quote JavaScript founder Brendan Eich7, since I totally agree with him on this:

  • First they said JS couldn't be useful for building "rich Internet apps"
  • Then they said it couldn't be fast
  • Then they said it couldn't be fixed
  • Then it couldn't do multicore/GPU
  • Wrong everytime!
  • My advice: always bet on JS 



  1. "eBusiness a complete text" by Colin J Holcombe 2016, chapter 2.4
  2., accessed on December 2020
  3. Brendan Eich in interview “The A–Z of Programming Languages: JavaScript,” Computerworld, July 30, 2008
  4. "LEARNING Node.js" snd edition by Marc Wandschneider 2017, page 2 ff
  7. Brendan Eich at dotJS conference 2017, recorded at

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